A protocol for gynecological and obstetric examination of owl monkeys using ultrasound

  • Frederico Ozanan Barros Monteiro
  • Leandro Nassar Coutinho
  • Rafaela Sayuri Cicalise Takeshita
  • Gilmara Abreu da Silva
  • Klena Sarges Marruaz da Silva
  • Christina Wippich Whiteman
  • Paulo Henrique Gomes de Castro
  • José Augusto Pereira Carneiro Muniz
  • Wilter Ricardo Russiano Vicente


The objective of this study was to establish a physical restraint protocol for gynecological and obstetric examination using ultrasound in Aotus azarai infulatus. The study was conducted with 10 previously established adult couples, evaluated during two different time periods (P1and P2). In P1, the conditioning was carried out by daily repetition of the gynecological exam associated with the offering of fruits before, during and after the exam. In P2, gynecological examinations were performed on nonpregnant females (n = 6), and obstetric examinations on those who became pregnant (n = 3). The exams were performed using the Medical SonoAce 9900®ultrasound equipment equipped with a multifrequential linear array probe (5-12 MHz). The initial and final heart rate (HR1 and HR2) for each female were calculated based on the interval between systolic peaks. No significant differences were observed in the heart rates in terms of time of examination, suggesting that the time did not interfere in the variables analyzed during the exams. The gynecological and obstetric exams presented a HR2 lower than HR1 during the two periods evaluated (p<0.01). The stress caused by initial restraint increased sympathetic activity and raised HR1. Offering fruits and habituating the animals favored the parasympathetic modulation, thereby explaining the decrease in HR2. This was observed in both gynecological and obstetric exams.


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